Tuesday, June 12, 2012
Sunday, June 10, 2012
What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by many factors, with simtoma of chronic hyperglycemia and impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein, as a result of :
- Deficiency of insulin secretion, insulin activity, or both.
- Glucose transporter deficiency.
- Or both.
Various diseases, syndromes and simtoma can be triggered by diabetes mellitus, such as : Alzheimer's, ataxia-telangiectasia, Down syndrome, Huntington's disease, mitochondrial disorders, miotonis dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, Prader-Willi syndrome, Werner syndrome, Wolfram syndrome, leukoaraiosis, dementia , hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, and others.
Classify forms of diabetes mellitus :
- Type 1 diabetes, which include simtoma ketoacidosis until the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas caused by or causing autoimmunity, and is idiopathic. Diabetes mellitus with unclear pathogenesis, such as cystic fibrosis or the deficiency of mitochondria, are not included in this classification.
- Type 2 diabetes, caused by a deficiency of insulin secretion, often accompanied by insulin resistance syndrome
- Gestational diabetes, which includes gestational impaired glucose tolerance, and
- gestational diabetes mellitus GIGT, GDM.and according to clinical stage without consideration of the pathogenesis, made into :
- Diabetes requiring insulin for survival, as in the case of C-peptide deficiency.
- Diabetes requiring insulin for control. At this stage, endogenous insulin secretion is not sufficient to achieve normoglicemia symptoms, if not accompanied by additional hormones from outside the body.
- Not insulin requiring diabetes.
Fourth grade in clinical stage classification similar to IDDM (English: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), being the fifth and sixth stages are members of the classification of NIDDM (English: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). IDDM and NIDDM is a classification listed in the International Nomenclature of Diseases in 1991 and revisions to the 10th International Classification of Diseases in 1992.
Malnutrion-related classification of diabetes mellitus, MRDM, no longer used because, although malnutrition can affect the expression of several types of diabetes, up to now has not found evidence that malnutrition or protein deficiency can lead to diabetes. MRDM subtypes; protein-deficient pancreatic diabetes mellitus, PDPDM, PDPD, PDDM, is still regarded as a form of malnutrition that was induced by diabetes mellitus and requires further research. Whereas the other subtypes, Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes, FCPD, classified as exocrine pancreatic disease in fibrocalculous pancreatopathy trajectory that induce diabetes mellitus.
Classification of Impaired Glucose Tolerance, IGT, now defined as the stage of defective glucose regulation, as can be observed in all types of aberration hiperglisemis. But no longer considered diabetic.
Classification of Impaired Fasting glycaemia, IFG, was introduced as the ratio simtoma fasting blood sugar is higher than the upper limit of normal range, but still below the ratio determined as the basis for the diagnosis of diabetes.